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高中英语

  •   【摘要】本篇文章作者指出中学英语的实质,以及作者在教学中如何运用技能来练习英语写作,旨在为英语写作教学起到抛砖引玉作用。

      整个高中阶段,英语教学的四种技是相辅相成,相互促进。而写的训练贯穿于教学全过程,即运用学过的英语知识进行思想交流。现在的书面表达,实质上是一种控制性或指导性写作,它不得离开要求去自行立意、随意发挥;它与 翻译 相似,但又比翻译 灵活。它是在指定范围内比较灵活的写作。常常会要求学生根据所给的情景和要求写出一篇文理通顺、语言准确、连贯流畅、地道的英语短文。纵观近几年的英语高考试题,写作实际上是考查学生综合运用英语语言的能力。结合本人的教学实践,就英语写作训练谈谈自己的一孔之见,以抛砖引玉。

      一、勤读、多背好精句,范文

      熟读唐诗三百首,不会写诗也会吟 ,英语文章也是如此。要想写好一篇文章,没有充足的词汇量是不行的。课文中的俗语和谚语的识记是通过背诵来完成。背诵是语言学习的重要手段,也是语言学习的必经之路。

      背词句 利用有限的时间,背诵课文中的重点句型和短语尤其是课文中的俗语和谚语和经典句子。

      Eg. proverbs;

      No pains no gains.

      There is a will there is a way.

      All roads lead to Rome.

      It is no use crying over spilt milk.

      Useful structures

      It s time for sth. /to do

      As far as sb. Know,

      It s suggested / said /reported that

      Good sentences

      I m very delighted to hear from you.

      I m looking forward to seeing my parents.

      Thank you for your helping me with my English.

      背范文 将近几年高考中的作文和课文中好的段落以及报刊上的各种各样的体裁和优秀文章让学生背,数量至少要达到六十篇,这样学生才能在自己的脑子中形成一定的写作框架,做到心中有数。

      多读书 为了培养学生用英语思维的定势,增加对英语国家文化、社会风俗习惯、风土人情、思维方式的了解,扩大视野,选择课外阅读,让学生学会分析、判断、猜测、推理和领悟。

      二、亲自动手,自己写作

      临渊羡鱼,不如退而结网。 如果仅仅背了大量文章、佳句,不亲自动手写还是不行,世上没有一成不变的文章让你照搬。

      循序渐进

      冰冻三尺,非一日之寒 英语写作能力并非是一蹴而就,它必须由浅入深,由简到繁,由易到难,循序渐进,一环紧扣一环地进行训练。教师应注重基本功训练,严格要求学生正确,工整,熟练地书写字母,单词和句子,同时注意大小写和标点符号。进行组词造句,组句成段练习时,要学生写出最简单的短句,为以后英语作文打好扎实的基础。如写 我的家庭 时,指导学生写出一简单句。There are three members in my family. My father,mother and me. My fahter is a worker. My mother is a teacher. I m a student. They are both very busy all days ,but they love me so much. I also love them. I often help them with housework..这种练习可以安排在刚开始的一轮复习中,要求学生能够用最基本的时态去完成写作。例如:yesterday I called on my one of old friends .he was doing his homework. He said he would like to help me with my English. I was very happy at that time . we had a wonderful time.另外结合高中英语基础知识的复习,对学生提出较高写作能力的要求。复习American English一课时,可要求学生写出American English and British English之间的差别。

      范例引路

      学生在进行短文写作训练时,教师应提供各种文体的范文,讲明各种文体的写作要求和注意事项,如日记,便条,书信,通知的格式等,并给予必要的提示,并掌握各种体裁文章的格式。在平时的教学中,教师应该指导学生对付高考中各种体裁文章。

      限时训练

      训练写作时,教师当场发题,限时交卷。这样能促使学生瞬间接受信息, 快速理解信息,迅速表达信息,提高实际应用和应试能力。这一步是关键,也是学生的的难关。这样做必须使学生明白高考书面表达题既不是汉译英,也不是可任意发挥的作文。它要求的是将所规定的材料内容经整理后,展开思维,考查学运用所学英语知识准确地表达意思的能力;必须要求学生在写作过程中牢牢记住以下口诀: 先读提示,要点与格式要弄清;时态语态要当心,前后呼应要一致;结构搭配,莫违背;文章写好细检查,点滴小错别忽视 。学生明确目的,并掌握要领后,要严格在规定时间内完成作业 训练的初级阶段。教师把时间放宽一点 随着学生写作能力增强,时间相应缩短,逐步做到30分钟内完成任务,不能养成拖拉的习惯。

      多想精炼 在平时的教学中,教师要鼓励学生感悟生活,要求学生多看、多听、多想,用心体验和感悟身边的人和事,然后将自己的体验和感受用英语写出来。教师要求学生每周写两篇,有话则长,无话可短。上交,并反馈。同时把优秀的文章在班级 英语角 报上发表。对于他们在日记中所写的事情,用英语写下自己的评语,对不同水平的学生作不同的要求。或鼓励或表达自己的看法和体会。久而久之,学生的日记越来越长,语言也更通顺了。而且作业评语成了师生心心交流的桥梁。

      除了写日记外,有时我根据所学单元知识布置一篇作文,或不时给学生提供一些与时事或与学生学习活动和生活有关的材料。此类话题的现实性能诱发学生的写作兴趣,使其有话可写,有感而发;还能增强其信心,使其写作能力、技巧得到充分的锻炼和提高。对于优秀的学生,在表扬的同时要给予指正:Wonderful! You haven t made any mistakes,but you should pay attention on your handwriting.

      对于有待进步的学生需要给鼓励性的评语,激发他们的写作热情,增强他们的信心:

      If you try your best ,you will be sucessful. 除了写日记外,有时我根据所学单元知识布置一篇作文或者不时给学生提供一些与学生学习活动和生活有关的材料。此类话题的现实性能诱发学生的写作兴趣,使他们有话可写,有感而发;还能增强信心,使他们的写作能力、技巧得到充分的锻炼和提高。

      自改互改

      对照范文,学生先对已查出的表达有误的地方进行初改。考虑到范文不可能把各种表达方式都包括进去,况且学生作业中的错误也不尽相同,因此,还可安排学生互改作业。以同桌两人为宜,批改者对有疑问的地方作上记号,待互相讨论取得一致意见后再更正。若有争议的问题,可当场请教老师,学生得到了满意的答案,心里总是挺高兴的,他们的写作兴趣自然就会提高。最后,要求学生再对全文通读几遍,琢磨一下是否符合要求,尽量做到准确无误。如发现错误,可做最后修改,书写工整,交老师查阅。本人认为高中英语写作教学模式的探索,本着以学生为主体,教师为主导。主体化教学理念为依据,建构高中英语写作课堂模式,其内在的精髓在于学生学习自己活动实践贯穿整个教学过程。
     

    以下的链接供学生家长参考:

    高中英语老师

    高中英语机构

    高中英语新信息

    高中英语论坛

    高中英语公开课

    高中英语优惠课程

    高中英语资料下载

  •   总述: 谓语动词的变化形式取决于时态和语态: 英语的时态有十六种, 中学英语中有十二种常见的时态; 语态有两种, 即主动语态和被动语态

      1.在主动语态中, 各种时态的谓语动词的一般形式如下:

      一般进行完成完成进行

      现在do / doesam / is / are doinghave / has donehave / has been doing

      过去didwas / were doinghad donehad been doing

      将来shall / will doshall / will be doingshall / will have doneX

      如果谓语是be动词, 则可用be动词的适当形式( be / am / is / are / was / were / been)代替以上表格中的黑体字部分. 此外, 过去将来时的形式是: should / would do或should / would be

      2.在被动语态中, 各种时态的谓语动词的一般形式如下:

      一般进行完成完成进行

      现在am / is / are doneam / is / are being donehave / has been doneX

      过去was / were donewas / were being donehad been doneX

      将来shall / will be doneXshall / will have been doneX

      另外, 过去将来时的被动语态形式是should / would be done

      主动语态

      在主动语态中, 高中英语中常见的有十二个时态

      一.一般现在时:

      1.构成: 通常以动词原形表示. 主语为第三人称单数时, 则用动词的第三人称单数形式来表示

      2.用法:

      ①.表示现状, 性质, 状态, 经常的或习惯性的动作

      a. It is fine today.

      b. I am a student.

      c. I get up at six every day.

      d. My father never takes a bus; he walks to his office.

      ②.表示客观事实或普遍真理

      a. Japan is to the east of China.

      b. The sun rises in the east.

      c. A horse is a useful animal.

      ③.表示将来确定会发生的动作(如己安排好或计划好的动作或按时刻表将来一定会发生的动作), 可以这样使用的动词有: go, come, leave, start, arrive等

      a. My train leaves at 6:30.

      b. The football match is played the day after tomorrow.

      ④.在时间和条件状语从句中可用一般现在时动词代替一般将来时动词

      a. I will let you know as soon as I hear from him.

      b. We will go if it is fine tomorrow.

      c. I will be away when he arrives.

      d. We shall not begin the discussion until he arrives.

      e. Mother, I won’t go out unless you agree.

      f. Don’t try to run before you begin to walk.

      ⑤.在某些以here / there开头的句子中用一般现在时动词表示现在正在发生的动作

      a. Here comes the bus.=The bus is coming.

      b. There goes the bell.

      ⑥.在体育比赛过程中, 解说员叙述迅速, 短暂动作时, 可用一般现在时, 表示正在进行的或刚刚发生的动作

      a. Ma Lianbao passes the ball to Mu Tiezhu, Mu shoots – a fine shot !

      ⑦.在剧本或图片的说明文字中, 用一般现在时表示动作

      a. When the curtain rises, Juliet is sitting at her desk. The phone rings. She picks it up and listens quietly.

      二.现在进行时:

      1.构成: am / is / are doing

      2.用法:

      ①.表示说话时正在进行着的动作, 或现阶段正在进行而说话时不一定正在进行的动作

      a. I am writing a letter.

      b. My mother is making a dress these few days.

      ②.表示即将发生的动作(如在最近按计划或安排好要进行的动作), 常见的有这种用法的动词有: come /go / leave / start / arrive等, 常与表示将来时间的状语连用

      a. They are going to Shanghai on Friday.

      b. John is coming here next week.

      ③.现在进行时动词与always, continually, constantly等连用, 表示反复出现的或习惯性的动作

      a. The little boy is always asking questions.

      b. You are always saying that sort of thing.

      ④.在一定的上下文中, 前一句用一般现在时动词表述现在发生的事实, 后一句用现在进行时动词来阐述这一事实的原因, 结果, 目的等

      a. He frowns. He is worrying about his boy.他皱着眉头, 因为他在为他的孩子担心. (is worrying表示原因)

      b. She criticizes him. She is trying to correct his wrong habits. 她批评他, 想纠正他的坏习惯. (is trying表示目的)

      c. She lets her child have his own way. She is spoiling him. 她不管她的孩子, 把他惯坏了. ( is spoiling表示结果)

      ⑤.不表示持续的行为, 而表示知觉, 感觉, 看法, 认识, 感情, 愿望或某种状态的动词通常不用现在进行时, 如: see, hear, smell, taste, recognize, notice, forget, remember, understand, know, believe, suppose, mean, think, love, hate, care, like, dislike, worry, forgive, want, wish, hope, refuse, feel like, belong to , possess, own, have, be, seem等

      三.现在完成时:

      1.构成: have / has done

      2.用法:

      ①.表示动作在说话之前己经完成, 而后果或影响至今仍存在

      a. He has gone to Shanghai. ( =He went to Shanghai and he is not here now. )

      b. I have opened the window. ( =I opened the window and the window is now open.)

      c. The concert has started. ( =The concert started and is now going on. )

      d. I have had breakfast. (=I had breakfast and I am not hungry now. )

      ②.表示开始于过去, 持续到现在(也许还会继续进行下去)的动作或状态, 用于延续性动词, 且句中常带有表示段时间的时间状语

      a. I have studied English since 1987.

      b. He has lived here for two years.

      c. He has been ill for ten days.

      3.现在完成时与一般过去时的区别:

      ①.现在完成时和一般过去时所表示的动作都发生在过去, 但前者将过去的动作与现在的结果或对现在的影响联系起来, 而后者只限于表示过去的动作本身, 与现在无关

      ②.现在完成时不能与表明确时间的状语如: yesterday, last year, two days ago, when I came in等连用, 但可与表示不明确时间的状语如: already, yet, sometimes, often, before, lately, recently, once, twice, ever等连用, 也可以和包括现在在内的时间状语如: this morning, today, this week, this year等连用

      a. She has already come.

      b. I have met him before.

      c. Ma Hong has always been a good student.

      d. Have you ever been to the Great Wall ?

      e. I have seen him this morning.

      四.现在完成进行时:

      1.构成: have / has been doing

      2.特征: 现在完成进行时兼有现在完成时和现在进行时两者的特点

      ①.它具有现在完成时的特点, 即表示动作发生在过去, 延续到现在或对现在产生影响

      ②.它具有现在进行时的特点, 即可以表示此动作仍在进行或还会继续

      a. Mr. Smith has taught English for twenty years. ( 至今为止教过二十年英语, 至于teach是否结束或是否延续, 不得而知)

      b. Mr. Smith has been teaching English for twenty years.( 现在仍在教英语,而且将持续下去)

      3.用法:

      ①.表示现在之前的一段时间里一直进行的动作, 此动可能仍在进行, 也可能刚刚停止

      a. I have been reading the book all the morning.

      b. He has been staying here for two hours.

      c. I have been living in Beijing since 1972.

      ②.表示现在之前的一段时间里一再重复的动作

      a. I have been calling you several times in the past two days.

      4.现在完成时与现在完成进行时的区别: 前者着重表示过去动作对现在的影响或结果; 后者着重表示过去动作的持续进行

      a. I have written six letters since I got back.我己经写了六封信 (强调结果)

      b. I have been writing letter since I got back. 我回家后一直在写信 (强调“一直在写”)

      c. I have read this book.我读过这本书了(强调“读过”这一结果)

      d. I have been reading this book.我一直在读这本书 (强调“一直在读”)

    以下的链接供学生家长参考:

    高中英语老师

    高中英语机构

    高中英语新信息

    高中英语论坛

    高中英语公开课

    高中英语优惠课程

    高中英语资料下载

  • 第二章 “It”用法及其句型和固定搭配讲解

      "It" 用法及其句型和固定搭配,是高中英语语法的重点、难点,又是近几年高考的热点,因此应给予充分的重视,现将it用法归纳如下:

      一、It用作实词

      表达以下概念:指代前文提到的事物,前文中的this, that;替代前文中的内容;指代一位性别不明的小孩或未知的人;指代未指明但谈话双方都知道的那件事;指代时间、天气、气候、距离等自然现象……

      二、It用作形式主语

      替代作主语的从句、动词不定式、动名词,而把真正作主语的从句、动词不定式、动名词置于句尾。

      It 作形式主语的常见句型:

      1. 代作主语的动词不定式,其句型为

      (1) It be adj. (for sb.) to do sth.

      此处adj. 通常为描述事件的形容词:easy, difficult, hard, necessary, unnecessary, possible, impossible, likely, unlikely, right, wrong, important, unimportant, legal, illegal, well-mannered, ill-mannered, polite, impolite, clear, obvious, certain, suitable, proper, fit, useful, useless, dangerous…

      例 It is illegal (for a teenager) to drive a car without a license.

      (2) It be adj. of sb. to do sth.

      此处adj. 通常为描述人的形容词:kind, unkind, nice, rude, cruel, considerate, thoughtful, thoughtless, careful, careless, silly, foolish, stupid, clever, wise, crazy.

      例 It's kind of you to help me with the problem.

      (3) It替代作主语的动名词的常见句型

      It's no good/use doing…

      It's (well)worth doing…

      It's (well)worth one's while doing/to do…

      It's (well)worth while doing/ to do

      例 It's no use crying over spilt milk.

      2. It替代作主语的从句常见句型

      (1) It is + noun +从句

      例 It is no secret that the president wants to have a second term at office.

      (2) It is adj. +clause

      It's surprising that… (should)………竟然……

      It's a pity/shame that…(should)………竟然……

      例 It's important that you should apologize to her for your rudeness.(=It's of much importance that you should apologize to her for your rudeness.)

      (3) It verb sb. + clause= It is v-ing + clause

      It+surprise/delight/interest/disappoint/worry/disturb/annoy/amaze

      /bother/concern/frighten/please/anger sb. that…

      例 It worried me that she drove so fast.(= It was worrying that she drove so fast.)

      (4) It verb (to sb.) that…= sb/sth verb to do

      (verb = appear, seem, come about, emerge, follow, chance, happen, occur, transpire, turn out , work out)

      例 It (so) happened/chanced that they were out.(= They happened/chanced to be out.)

      (5) It is v-ed that…=sb/sth is to do

      (verb=say, report, think, believe, hope, expect, agree, accept, decide, determine, intend, plan, understand, know)

      例 It is said that the couple have gotten divorced.(=The couple are said to have gotten divorced.)

      (6) It is v-ed that … (should)…

      (verb=demand, request, require, order, suggest, advise, recommend

      例 It is suggested that they should begin with the third question.

      三、It作主语的句型

      1. It takes sb. … to do…(=sb takes…to do…)某人用多长时间做某事

      例 It took the men a week to mend our roof.(= The men took a week to mend our roof.)

      2. It's (just)(un)like sb. to do…(不)像某人做某事的风格

      例 It was (just) like him to think of helping us.

      3. It's (about/high) time that… should /v-ed…是该做某事的时候了

      例 It's(about/high) time that we should take action.

      4. It's the x-th time (that) … have v-ed…第几次做某事了

      例 It's the third time that he has failed the driving test.

      5. It is/has been… since …continuous v-ed(延续性动词) 某动作已有多长时间不发生了

      例 It's 10 years that he lived here

      6. It was(not)… before…过(不)了多长时间某动作发生了

      例 It was not long before they arrived.

      四、It 作形式宾语

      用来替代作宾语的从句、动词不定式、动名词,而把真正作宾语的从句、动词不定式、动名词置于句尾。

      It 作形式宾语的常见句型:

      1. verb+ it+ adj./noun (for/of) to do/clause (verb=think, believe, suppose, consider, feel, make, keep…)

      例 I think it hard for you to do the task on your own./I think it hard that you'll do the task on your own.

      2. verb+it+adj./noun (one's) doing (adj.=useless/worth/worthwhile)(noun=no use/no good/worth one's while/a waste of time/money/energy/words) (verb=think, believe, suppose, consider, feel, make, keep…)

      例 I'll make it worth your while telling me about his secret.

      3. verb+it+ important/unimportant/necessary/unnecessary/natural/essential that … (should)…

      verb+it+of much/great/no/little importance that…(should)…

      (verb=think, believe, suppose, consider, feel, make, keep…)

      例 I think it important that you (should) attendthe conference.

      4. verb + it+ as+ noun/adj.+ clause (verb=accept, regard, take, see, view)

      例 The lecturer takes it as encouraging when so many students attend his lecture.

      5. v. +it + prep. + that…

      owe it to sb. that…把…归功于…

      leave it to sb that…把…留给某人去做

      take it for granted that …想当然

      keep it in mind that…

      例 Don't bother to arrange anything. Just leave it to me to sort out.

      6. It用在不能直接跟宾语从句的动词后面,尤其是表示好恶的动词后,enjoy, like, love, dislike, resent, hate, don't mind, be fond of, feel like, see to 宾语从句紧跟it之后

      例 I hate it you can swim so well and I can't.

      7. It用在不能直接跟宾语从句的介词后面,宾语从句紧跟it之后(except that例外)

      例 I'm for it that you will follow their advice.

      五、强调句型

      It is/was+被强调部分+ that(who)… 强调句型用来强调谓语动词以外的任何句子成分。当被强调部分是人时也可以用who。

      在使用强调句型时需注意以下几点:

      1. 请注意强调句型的特殊疑问句

      例 When was it that he changed his mind to take part in the activity?

      2. 在强调原因状语从句时,只能强调由because所引导的从句

      例 It was because he was ill that he didn't come to school yesterday.

      3. 在强调not … until结构时必须把not与until一起放到被强调的位置上

      例 It was not until she took off her dark glasses that I realized she was my brother.

      4. 注意强调句型与定语从句的区别

      例 It was at 7 o'clock that he came here yesterday.( 强调句型)

      It was 7 o'clock when he came here yesterday.(定语从句)

      六、It 常用的固定搭配

      1. make it

      (1).在口语当中相当于succeed,表示:成功、做到、说定、赶上、及时到达

      例 It's hard to make it to the top in show business.

      (2).在口语中相当于fix the date for,表示“约定好时间”

      例 —Shall we meet next week?

      —OK. We just make it next Saturday.

      2. as it is

      (1).相当于in fact, in reality表示“事实上,实际情况是……”

      例 We had planed to finish the task today, but as it is we probably won't finish it until next week.

      (2).相当于方式状语从句,表示“照原样”

      例 Leave the table as it is.

      3. as it were 相当于as one might say, that is to say, 表示“也就是说,可以说,换句话说”

      例 He is, as it were, a modern Sherlock Holmes.

      4. if it weren't for…/if it hadn't been for…用来引导虚拟语气,相当于without, or but for, 表示“如果不是……,要不是……”

      例 If it weren't for Tom, I wouldn't be alive today.

      5. that's it

      (1). 相当于That's all. That's so much. 表示“至此为止,没有别的了”

      例 You can have one more sweet, and that's it.

      (2). 相当于 That's right.表示“对啦”

      例 — I guess the key to the problem is thechoice “A”

      —That's it.

      6. catch it 在口语中,相当于be punished/scolded for doing sth. wrong. 表示“因做错事而挨骂,受责备,受批评,受惩罚”

      例 We'll really catch it form our teacher if we're late for class again.

      7. have it

      (1).相当于say, insist表示“说,主张,表明,硬说”

      例 Rumour has it that they are getting divorced.

      (2).相当于get to know something,表示“了解,知道,获悉”

      例 I had it from John that she was going abroad.

      8. have what it takes在口语中,相当于be well qualified for, 表示“具有成功的条件”

      例 You can take it from me that your daughter has what it takes to be a star.

      9. so it seems / appears.

      10. Keep at it! (Don't give up!)相当于go on,表示“继续做,不放弃”

      例 My teacher asked me to keep at it.

      11. Go it! (Go on!) 拼命干, 莽撞

      12. Now you have done it! (You have done sth. wrong.)

      13. Now you'll catch it! (You'll be punished.)

      14. As it happened, … 在口语中,相当于it's a pity that…, 表示“真不凑巧,真遗憾”

      例 As it happened, they were out.

      15. As it turned out,…在口语中,相当于it was found to be in the end, 表示“最后被证明是”

      例 As it turned out, his statement was false.

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  •  导语:高中英语中有很多重要的语法点需要我们认真识记。以下就是紫禁网小编为你准备的高中英语语法大全:副词yet的用法详解,供你学习参考。



      1. 用作副词,表示“已经”、“至今”、“仍然”等,通常用于否定句、疑问句(包括一些表示怀疑的动词),且通常位于句末。

      Is your mother back yet? 你母亲回来了吗?

      I don‘t want to go away yet. 我还不想离开。

      I doubt if he has read it yet. 我怀疑他是否读过它。

      注:在否定句中,有时也位于句中(紧跟在否定词之后),这种用法比句末位置的用法更正式。

      我们还不知道答案。

      正:We don’t know the answer yet. (口语或非正式)

      正:We do not yet know the answer. (正式)

      误:We don‘t know yet the answer.

      但有时可紧跟在动词后的从句前。

      I don’t know yet whether he‘ll come or not. 我还不知道他来不来。

      比较以下两句的时态,与英国英语和美国英语有关:

      我还没收到他的来信。

      正:I haven’t received a letter from him yet. (英)

      正:I didn‘t receive a letter from him yet. (美)

      2. 有时与情态动词连用,表示“迟早”、“早晚”。

      We may win yet. 我们迟早会获胜的。

      The plan may even yet succeed. 该计划将来说不定会成功。

      3. 用作连词,表示转折,意为“但是”、“然而”,往往含有“尽管如此但……”之意。

      He said he would be late, yet he arrived on time. 他说他会迟到,但他却准时到了。

      注:有时可与另一个连词 and, but 连用(位于其后)。

      The boy is fat and yet he runs very fast. 这男孩很胖,但却跑得很快。

      I agree with you, but yet I can’t consent. 我同意你的意见,但是我不能答应。

      4. 用于 not (just) yet, 意为“尚未”“还不(没有)”。

      A:Are you ready to start? 你准备出发了吗?

      B:Not just yet. 还没有。

      A:Has he ever been to a foreign country? 他出过国吗?

      B:Not yet. 没有。

    以下的链接供学生家长参考:

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  •   小编导语:高中英语语法分类讲解及练习资料(情态动词)是小编为你准备的高中英语语法分类讲解及练习资料(情态动词)。高中英语中有很多重要的语法点需要我们认真识记。以下就是小编为你准备的高中英语语法分类讲解及练习资料(情态动词),供你学习参考。

      情态动词顾名思义就是表示情感和态度的词,常见的有:can (could); may (might); must; have to; shall (should); will (would); need; dare (dared); ought to; 情态动词没有人称和数的变化,不能单独使用,它与其后的动词原形合成谓语结构。它们的用法如下:

      一. can和could 的用法

      1. 表示能力或客观的可能性,还可以表示请求和允许。如:

      Can you finish this work tonight? Man cannot live without air.

      — Can I go now? — Yes, you can.

      注意:

      1) could表示语气较委婉的请求,主要用语疑问句,(用于此意义时不用在肯定句)答语用can。

      — Could I come to see you tomorrow?

      — Yes, you can. (不能用could). (否定句常用No, I'm afraid not.)

      2) can表示能力时,还可以用 “be able to” 代替,例如:

      I'll be able to come this afternoon.

      但当我们要表示“某件事已成”时,须用 “was (were) able to”不能用could,例如:

      He was able to go to the party yesterday evening and he enjoyed himself very much.

      2. 表示“惊异、怀疑、不相信”的态度。(主要用在否定句、疑问句和感叹句中)

      Can this be true? How can you say like that? This cannot be done by him.

      3. “can (could) + have + done” 的疑问或否定形式表示对过去发生的行为怀疑或不肯定。

      He cannot have been to that town. Can he have got the book?



      二. may 和might 的用法

      1. 表示许可,表示请求、允许时,might 比may 的语气更加委婉一些,否定回答时可用can’t 或mustn’t, 表示“不可以、禁止、阻止”之意。 例如:

      — Might I use your pen? — No, you mustn’t.

      — May I take this book out? — Yes, you can (— No, you can’t/ mustn’t.)

      用May I… 征询对方许可在文体上较正式,在口气上比较客气,在日常口语中,用Can I… 征询对方意见在现代口语中更为常见。

      2. 用于表示祝愿的句子中。例如:

      May you success! May you be happy! May you have a good journey!

      3. 表示推测、可能(疑问句中不用于此意)

      He may be very busy now. (此句中用might 语气较弱)

      4. “May (Might) + have + done” 表示对过去发生的行为的推测。例如:

      He may not have finished the work. (此句中用might 语气较更弱)



      三. must 和 have to 的用法

      1. 表示“必须、必要”。

      You must come on time.

      当must 引出的问句时, 若是否定的回答,不能用mustn’t,而用needn’t或don’t have to.

      — Must we hand in our exercise our books today?

      — Yes, you must. (No, needn’t/you don’t have to.)

      2. “must be + 表语”的结构表示推测,它的否定或疑问形式用can 代替must。如:

      He must be our new teacher.

      Can he be our new teacher? He can’t be our new teacher.

      ※ 附加疑问句要和谓语动词实际时态一致。如:

      He must be our new teacher, isn’t he?

      3. “must + have +done” 的结构常用在肯定句中,表示对过去或完成的情况推测,它的否定或疑问形式也用can代替must.

      He must have finished his work.

      ※ 附加疑问句也要和谓语动词实际时态一致。如:

      He must have finished his work already, hasn’t he?

      He must have finished his work at four yesterday, didn’t he?

      4. have to 的含义与must相似,两者往往可以互换使用,但have to有各种形式,随have的变化而定,must 与have to有下列几点不同:

      1) must表示的是说话人的主观看法,而have to则往往强调客观需要,例如:

      The play is not interesting. I really must go now.

      I had to work when I was your age.

      2) 两者的否定意义大不相同。例如:

      You mustn’t go. (你不可以去) You don’t have to go. (你不必去)

      3) 询问对方的意见时应用must。

      Must I hand in the exercise book before eight?

      4) must 表示“偏偏”

      Must it rain today? (今天怎么偏偏下雨呢?)



      四. dare 和need的用法

      1. need表示“需要,必须”,作情态动词时,仅用于疑问句和否定句,在肯定句中一般用must, have to, ought to,或should代替。例如:

      You needn’t come so early.

      — Need I clean all the room right now? — Yes, you must. (— No, you needn’t.)

      注意:needn’t + have +done表示“本来不必要做的事而实际上做了”,例如:

      You needn’t have waited for me. 你本来没有必要等我的。

      2. dare作情态动词时,主要用于疑问句,否定句和条件句中,一般不用于肯定句,例如:

      How dare you take my book without permission?

      He dare not speak English before such a crowd, dare he?

      3. need和dare作情态动词时,过去时形式与现在形式相同(美国英语中可用dared)。

      He was so angry that no one dared say a word.

      They said that he needn’t stay there any longer.

      4. need和dare常用实义动词,有时态、人称和数的变化。不同的是dare作实义动词时,在肯定句中通常接带to的不定式,在疑问句和否定句中,dare之后的不定式可带to或不带to。例如:

      He needs to finish the work before nightfall.

      I dare to swim across this river.

      He does not dare (to) answer the teacher’s question.

      Don’t you dare (to) touch it?

      I wonder he dared say that.

      5. I dare say是习惯用语,常可写为I daresay,用法有以下几种:

      1) “敢于说”,通常接that或what引导的名词性从句。

      I dare say that he has stolen Tom’s football. I dare say what I think.

      2) “我想;恐怕;大概;也许是”,通常作插入语用,使句子委婉。

      I dare say there is something wrong with the machines.

      You’re tired, I dare say.

      You, I dare say, think otherwise.

      3) I dare say往往也作为反语使用。

      Oh, you mean to defeat our football team? I dare say you will. (噢!你们想赢我们的足球队?也许可以吧。)



      五. shall和should的用法。

      1. shall用于第一人称疑问句。表示征求对方意见。

      What shall we do this evening?

      Shall I open the window?

      2. shall 用语第三人称疑问句中,表示说话人征求对方的意见或向对方请示。

      When shall he be able to leave the hospital?

      3. shall用于第二、三人称的陈述句,表示说话人给对方的“命令、警告、允诺或威胁”。

      You shall fail if you don’t work harder.

      He shall have the book when I finish reading.

      He shall be punished.

      4. should表示劝告、建议、命令,其同义词是ought to,在疑问句中,通常用should代替ought to.

      You should go to class right away.

      Should I open the window?

      5. should + have +done应该做的事实上没做;shouldn’t have done不该做的事却已经做了,常含有责备的意思。

      You should have started earlier this morning.

      You shouldn’t have treated her like that.



      六. will和would的用法。

      1. 用于疑问句表示请求、建议等,would比will的语气更加委婉。

      Will you please give me a hand?

      Would you mind my smoking here?

      2. 表示意志、愿望和决心。

      I will never do that again.

      They asked us if we would do that again.

      3. 用“will be”和“will have done”的结构表示推测,主要用于二、三人称,前者表示对目前的情况的推测,后者表示对已经完成的动作或事态的推测。

      This will be the book you want.

      He will have arrived by now.

      4. would可表示过去反复发生的动作或某种倾向,表示过去习惯时比used to正式,同时它没有“现在已无此习惯”的含义。

      I would visit him during my vacation.

      The patient would not recover.

      5. 表示料想或猜想。

      He would be your new teacher.

      He would not come any more.



      七. ought to的用法。

      1. ought to表示应该时意义与should基本一致,但更侧重于一种义务或责任。

      You ought to take care of him.

      Parents ought to bring up their children.

      2. 表示推测,注意与must表示推测时的区别。

      He must be home by now.

      He ought to be home by now.

      This is where she must be.

      This is where she ought to be.

      3. ought to have done的用法与should have done的用法相同

      注意:ought to在美国英语中,用于否定句和疑问句时,to可以省略。如:

      Ought you smoke so much?

      You oughtn’t smoke so much.



      八. used to; had better; would rather的用法。

      1. used to表示过去习惯动作或状态,现在已经不存在,在间接引语中,其形式可不变。如:He told us he used to play football when he was young.

      1) 在疑问句、否定句或否定疑问句中,可有两种形式。

      疑问句:Did you used to/Used you to go to the same school as your brother?

      否定句:I usedn’t to/didn’t use to go there. (usedn’t 也可为usen’t, 发音不变)。

      否定句疑问句:Usedn’t you to/Didn’t you used to be interested in the play?

      2) 在附加疑问句和简略答语中,也可有两种形式。

      She used to be very fat, didn’t/usedn’t she?

      — Did you used to/Used you to play chess? — Yes, I did/used to.

      2. had better意为“最好”,后接不带to不定式。

      We had better go now.

      Hadn’t we better stop now?

      I think I’d better be going.

      You had better have done that.

      3. would rather意为“宁愿”,表示选择,后接不带to的不定式。

      I’d rather not say anything.

      Would you rather work on a farm?

      — Wouldn’t you rather stay here? — No, I would not. I’d rather go there.

      由于would rather表选择,故后面可接than.

      I would rather watch TV than go to see than go to see the film.

      I would rather throw it away than you should get it.(若than后面接从句常用should do)

      I’d rather you didn’t talk about this to anyone.

      ※ would rather 还可写为would sooner/would as soon.

    以下的链接供学生家长参考:

    高中英语老师

    高中英语机构

    高中英语新信息

    高中英语论坛

    高中英语公开课

    高中英语优惠课程

    高中英语资料下载