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大学英语

    1. Just as the soil is a part of the earth, ?____? the atmosphere.  ?
        A. as it is B. so is C. the same as D. and so is?
        2. While driving along the treacherous road, ?____?.  ?
        A. my right rear tire blew out ?
        B. my right rear tire had a blowout ?
        C. I had a blowout on my right rear tire ?
        D. I had my right rear tire blowout?
        3. Jean Wagner’s most enduring contribution to the study of Afro?American poetry is his insistence that it ?____? in a religious, as well as worldly, frame of reference.  ?
        A. is to be analyzed B. has been analyzed ?
        C. be analyzed D. should have been analyzed?
        4. ____? there is little we can do to modify the wheather, we can at least know what kind of weather to expect.?
        A. Since B. When C. While D. Unless?
        5. This organization brought Western artists together in the hope of making more of an impact on the art community ?____? any of them could individually and to promote Western art by women.?
        A. rather than B. rather C. than D. other than?
        答案:
        1. B) 【句意】 正像土壤是地球的一部分,大气层也是。
        【难点】 Just as...,so...为一固定结构,意为“正如…,…也…”。
        ?
        2. C) 【句意】 当我在险峻的山路上驾车急驰时,车的右后胎爆了。
        ?
        【难点】 此句为一个带有时间状语从句的主从复合句。在英语中,由while, when等引导的时间状语从句,如果其主语与主句中的主语相同,从句中的主语可以省略,而只剩下分词短语。驾车的应该是人,所以只能从C)和D)选,而D)的意义不符,所以选C)
        ?
        3. C) 【句意】 杰恩?瓦格那对亚非诗歌最永恒的贡献是他坚持认为,这类诗歌除用凡俗的参考框架,还应用宗教的参考框架进行研究。
        ?
        【难点】 insistence是个从insist派生来的名词,二者后面分别接同位语从句和宾语从句,句中皆应使用虚拟形式,即should+动词原形或动词原形。
        ?
        4. C) 【句意】 尽管我们在改变天气方面无能为力,但我们至少知道天气未来的变化。
        ?
        【难点】 while除表示时间外,还可表示转折、让步,意为“尽管,虽然”。该句中其它选项不具备此意。
        ?
        5. C) 【句意】 该组织把西部艺术家聚集在一起,希望他们比任何个人都能更多地影响艺术界,并由妇女来促进西部艺术。
        ?
        【难点】 选项C)的than与句中的more形成正确搭配,意为“比…都…”,故为答案。
        1. The new washing machines are __ at the rate of fifty a day.
        A turned up B turned down C turned out D turned in
        2. The newly-built Science Building seems__ enough to last a hundred years.
        A spacious B sophisticated C substantial D steady
        3. The newly-elected president is determined to__ the established policy of developing agriculture.
        A go after B go by C go for D go on
        4. The newly-published book has added__ his reputation.
        A in B to C on D up
        5. The news item about the fire is followed by a detailed report made__.
        A on the spot B on the site C on the location D on the ground
        答案:
        1-5CCBBA
        1. 选C译文:新洗衣机的产量已经达到每天50台了。
        ①turn out 生产,培养出This factory can turn out 100 cars a day.
        ②turn up发现The police have turned up a lot of new information about the wanted man.
       ③turn down拒绝The boy wanted to join the army but was turned down because he was under age.
        ④turn in上交These papers must be turned in before Friday.
        2. 选C 译文:那栋新科学建筑物看起来很牢固,好象可以屹立一百年不倒。
        ① substantial牢固的,坚实的It is a substantial desk.
        ② spacious广阔的,宽敞的The guests are all seated in the spacious dining room.
        ③ steady稳定的,可靠的Hold the candle steady.
        ④ sophisticated 复杂的
        3. 选B译文:新上任的总统下定决心要依照政策推进农业的发展。
        ① go by 遵照,依照That’s a good rule to go by.
        ② go for去找,去请Shall I go for a doctor?
        ③ Go after追求
        ④ Go on 继续
        4. 选B译文:他的新书提高了他的知名度。
        ① add to增加,加到……上The gorgeous costume added to the brilliance of the dance.
        ② Add in包括,加进去Don’t forget to add me in.
        ③ Add on包括,附加 Here’s your bill, sit. I’ve have added on the ten percent service charge.
        ④ Add up把……加起来 Add up these figures and see if the sum is correct.
        5. 选A译文:紧接着火灾的简略报道之后是更详细的现场报道。
        ①on the spot在场,在现场的②on location在拍摄外景Don’t interrupt the director. He is on location.
  •  1. The scene is so beautiful that it__ my power of description.

      A transports B transfers C transcends D transforms

      2. There are nations whose lack of contact with the outside world has __ poverty.

      A fallen into B consisted in C resulted in D come up to

      3. The pressure__ causes Americans to be energetic, but it also puts them under a constant emotional strain.

      A to compete B competing C to be competed D having competed

      4. Visitors are asked to __ with the regulations.

      A contrast B consult C comply D conflict

      5. To__ the situation, the president of the university put a series of new policies into practice.

      A measure B conflict C counter D efficiency

      答案:

      1-5 CCACC

      1. 选C ①transcend“超越,超出”There is nothing that seems to transcend the limits of unaided human intelligence.

      ②transform“改变,改造”A dynamo transforms mechanical energy into electricity.③transport “传送,运输”

      ④ transfer “转移,移动,转让”

      2. 选C ①result in “终归,结果是”Love results in marriage, naturally.

      ②fall into “归入,掉入,陷入”All changes of matter may fall into two kinds: physical changes and chemical changes.③consist in “在于,存在于”The beauty of Venice consists in the style of its an ancient buildings.

      ④come up to “达到,接近” The water came up to my waist.

      3. 选A这道题目考的是“名词后接不定式”。相关名词是pressure, ambition, campaign, drive, intention, need, reason, right, struggle, tendency, time, way和wish.

      4. 选C ①contrast with “与……形成对比,和……形成对照”Blue and yellow contrast prettily in design.

      ②consult with “请教,向……咨询”If relief does not occur within three days, discontinue use and consult with your physician.

      ③comply with “听从,顺从,照做”You must comply with the library rules.

      ④conflict with “冲突”Do your national laws conflict with any international laws?

      5. 选C ①counter “应对,反击,对付”They countered our proposal with one of their own.②measure 测量③efficiency效率,功效We will try to raise the efficiency of labor.

      1. There is nothing in physical structure, the brain or the internal organs to__ a difference.

      A display B indicate C demonstrate D appear

      2. The largest brain ever examined belonged to a person of weak_.

      A health B body C mind D thought

      3. Individuals of every race_ civilization to go backward or forward.

      A make B cause C move D turn

      4. The new government_ the foreign-owned oil fields one after another.

      A took over B took out C took off D took on

      5. The new technological revolution in American newspapers has brought increased_, a wider range of publications and an expansion of newspaper job.

      A circulation B reproduction C manipulation D penetration

      答案:

      1-5BCBAA

      1. 选B ①indicate标志,表示,表明What country is indicated by the name has not yet been determined.

      ②demonstrate说明,论证,演示,表露,显示At that time no one could demonstrate that the earth moves around the sun.

      ③appear出现,显露,来到,看起来好象He may appear a fool but actually he’s quite clever.

      ④indicate暗示

      2. 选C①mind“智力”He is old but his mind is still sharp.

      3. 选B①如果选make,后面的不定式to要省略。The children were surprised when the teacher made them close their books unexpectedly.②cause使……Climbing those stairs caused her to feel faint.

      4. 选A①take over接收,接管He is taking over my job during my holiday.

      ②take out除去,删除I’ll have my tooth taken out.

      ③take off脱去,脱掉

      ④take on从事,承担He has taken on many responsibilities.

      5. 选A①circulation销售量

      ②reproduction生殖,繁殖We will have a lesson on the reproduction of the rabbits this afternoon.

      ③manipulation操作,操纵Some people can put back a twisted joint, like the shoulder, by careful manipulation.

      ④penetration穿透,洞察力The penetration of that woman’s mind is really wonderful.

    1. The politician says that he will __ the welfare of the people.

        A prey on B take on C get at D see to

        2. We had difficulties at first but everything worked __ smoothly in the end.

        A off B out C away D up

        3. There is no easy solution to Japan’s labor__.

        A decline B vacancy C rarity D shortage

        4. This ticket__ you to a free meal in our new restaurant.

        A gives B grants C entitles D credits

        5. We need some sunshine; so we have__ up our minds to go abroad this year.

        A set B made C brought D given

        答案:

        1-5DBDCB

        1. 选D① see to注意,照料 Who is seeing to the arrangement for the next meeting? ② prey on猎取食物,折磨 An eagle preys on smaller birds. ③take on 承担(任务)She took on the task with great courage. ④get at够得着Could you get at the top shelf?

        2. 选B ①work out有……好的结果I hope the new job works out for you.② work off借工作活动清除掉 He often works off his anger.③work away继续In spite of all the difficulties, she worked away at her research work.④work up逐步形成,渐渐发展 He worked up the firm from nothing.

        3. 选D ①shortage匮乏,缺乏 The work remains unfinished owing to shortage of staff.②vacancy (职位/位置的)空闲 There is a good vacancy for a typist in the company.③ rarity(物/现象的)很少见 Rain is a rarity in the Sahara.

        4. 选C ①entitle赋予,给予entitle sb to sth或entitle sb to do。 If you fail three times, you are not entitled to do any more.②give可接双宾语,但直接宾语前不用介词t:You visits may give some comfort to the patient.③ grant同意,准予,授予 grant sth (to sb)/ grant sb sth:The general granted us permission to visit the military base.④ credit相信,认为 Until now I have always credited you with more sense.

        5. 选B ①set one’s mind on (to) 决心要,很想要 We’ve set our minds on a visit to the Great Wall.② bring sth to mind想起 The photo brings to our mind the days we spent together.③ give one’s mind to 注意某事物As a student, you should give your mind to study.

        1. The mother said she would __ her son washing the dishes if he could finish his assignment before supper.

        A let down B let alone C let off D let out

        2. This kind of material can __ heat and moisture.

        A delete B compel C constrain D repel

        3. Understanding the cultural habits of another nation, especially __ containing as many different subcultures as the United States, is a complex task.

        A one B the one C that D such

        4. In order to raise money, Aunt Nicola had to __ with some of her most treasured possessions.

        A divide B separate C part D abandon

        5. The new appointment of our president __ from the very beginning of next semester.

        A takes effect B takes part C takes place D takes turns

        答案:

        1-5 CDACA

        1. 选C ①let off原谅,不处罚,放过 With your record, you can hardly expect to let off lightly.

        ② let down使失望,食言③let alone别管,别烦Let her alone! She didn’t pick a quarrel with you.④ let out让……离开Open the door and let the cat out.

        2. 选D ①delete消去,删除 Delete his name from the list of applicants.②compel强迫,迫使(运用权利/力量对方采取行动)He was compelled by illness to give up his studies.③constrain 限制,约束(强调内心情感),后接不定式 His activities must be constrained.④ repel排斥,抵制,防,抗We should not repel but protect young people’s enthusiasm.

        3.选A 依语意以句子结构,此处需要一个代词,表泛指,则选one;而the one表特指 Please get the chair for me, the one in the corner.

        4.选C ①part 不及物动词 “分别,离别”Scarcely an hour has passed since we parted.②divide分,划分Is the land to be divided up or sold as a whole?③separate使……分离④abandon抛弃,放弃The order was given to abandon ship.

        5.①take effect(药物)见效,(法律等)生效The new system of taxation will take effect next May.②take part参加③take place发生,举行④take turns轮流,依次They are unwilling to take turns at the same computer.
    1. The car was in good working__ when I bought it in a few months ago.

        A order B form C state D circumstance

        2. In order to repair barns, build fences, grow crops, and care for animals a farmer must indeed be__.

        A restless B skilled C strong D versatile

        3. The policemen went into action__ they heard the alarm.

        A promptly B presently C quickly D directly

        4. He was __ to tell the truth even to his closed friend.

        A too much of a coward B too much the coward

        C a coward enough D enough of a coward

        5. The team’s efforts to score were__ by the opposing goalkeeper.

        A frustrated B prevented C discouraged D accomplished

        答案:

        1-5ADDAA

        1.选A ① order作“状态”②form作“形态,形状,方式,外型” Which literary form do you like best? ③ state 状态,状况,情形The child was in a state of neglect. ④ circumstance情况,情形.

        order和state的区别.state一般指思想,社会,道路,健康等情况.而这里的working order指的是机器,所以用order比较好.

        2.选D ① versatile 多才多艺的 He is a versatile athlete. ② restless不安定的,焦虑的,烦躁的 Americans are historically a restless and mobile people.而skilled相对versatile"多才多艺的"l来说,versatile更恰当.这个句子主要强调的是一个农民的多种技能.这种题目很烦,之前我也搞不清楚.

        3.选D 四个选项都是副词,但directly还可作连词,等同于as soon as,一……就……

        4.选A much of a 非常的…….(这个短语很重要一定要把这个例句背起来哦。)

        5.选A frustrate 挫败,阻挠,使感到灰心.frustrate在郎文词典中第二条是这样解释的.to prevent sb’s plans, efforts or attempts from succeeding挫败,阻挠 Their attempts to speak to him were frustrated by the guards.没特定给人使用哦.

        1. Furthermore, these high-ways generally __ large urban centers.

        A lead B connect C collect D communicate

        2. Not far from the __ new “superhighways”, these are often older, less heavily traveled roads which go through the countryside.

        A relatively B regularly C respectively D reasonably

        3. Others are uneven roads__ through the country.

        A driving B crossing C curving D traveling

        4. The manager promised to keep me __ of how our business was going on.

        A to be informed B on informing C informed D informing

        5. The secret agent concealed her real mission, therefore many local people were__ into thinking that she was a good person.

        A betrayed B driven C deceived D convinced

        答案:

        1-5 BACCC

        1.选B lead 和communicate是不及物动词,后不可以接名词。而connect表“连接”,是及物动词。

        2.选A 根据句子,要选一个表比较意义的副词,来构成对比关系。在这里relatively=more.

        3.选C curved (v)表“蜿蜒曲折”The road curves suddenly to the right.

        4.选C 填入的成分做宾语me的补足语,由于非谓语动词inform和me是逻辑上的主谓关系,所以用过去分词做宾补。

        5.选C deceive“欺骗,蒙骗”用deceive sb into doing sth欺骗某人做某事。betray背叛,出卖 His accent betrays him.
  • 1 . Please dispose __ those old newspaper while you’re cleaning up the room.
      A out B of C away D in
      2. At present there is a __ of iron and steel and more must be produced.
      A limit B loss C poverty D scarcity
      3. He was __ admittance to the concert hall for not being properly dressed.
      A rejected B denied C withheld D deprived
      4. George has a big coffee __ on the front of his jacket.
      A spot B mark C stain D patch
      5.The Christmas presents were all ___ in shiny paper.
      A done over B done with C done out D done up
      答案:
      1-5 BDBCD
      1. 选B dispose of处理掉How can I dispose of my old coat?
      2. 选D。scarcity缺乏,匮乏,稀罕,相当于lack。The causal relationship between scarcity of goods and higher prices is self-evident.
      3. 选B deny“拒绝给予”,后面多接双宾语,那就是用在deny sb sth 的结构中。She denied her son nothing. ②Withhold不给,拒绝He tried to withhold the truth from us.③Deprive (of) 剥夺,使丧失,使不能做No one should be deprived of love without the very best of reasons.
      4. 选C stain污点,污迹,耻辱 Gasoline can remove the stain. ② Spot点,斑点,污点,场所,地Give me but one firm spot on which to stand and I will move the earth.③Mark Cherishing children is the mark of a civilized society.④Patch补丁,碎片,小块土地,眼罩Don’t put a patch upon it.
      5. 选 D do up包装 Remember to do up the china in newspaper. (这里的china可是瓷器哦)
      1. Many artists predict that this brilliant young actor __ to be a shinning star.
      A destines B will be destined C is destined D has been destined
      2. His companions have threatened to __ his crime to the police.
      A impose B express C enclose D expose
      3. The patient’s progress was very encouraging as he could __ get out of bed without help.
      A nearly B hardly C merely D barely
      4. You must insist that students give a truthful answer__ with the reality of their world.
      A relevant B simultaneous C consistent D practical
      5. We have made great achievements, but it does not__ that there are no shortcomings.
      A result in B lead to C follow D cause
      答案:
      1-5 CDDCC
      1. 选C be destined to sth (todo)“ 命定,注定”The enemy’s attempt is destined to fail
      2. 选D. expose“揭露,暴露”,后常跟介词to。Don’t expose it to the sun.而impose on/ upon 把……强加于Don’t try to impose your wishes on us. Enclose
      3. 选D. barely“勉强,好不容易才”,表示肯定意义They have barely enough time to catch the train.
      4. 选C consistent“一致的,连贯的,始终如一的” His actions are always consistent with his words. 而simultaneous“同时发生的,同时的”Simultaneous interpretation in the United States is a demanding job.
      5. 选C It follows that 由此而得出……结论 He often gets high scores in exams, but it doesn’t follow that he is clever.

  •  1. I have no doubt that __ all of these people were taught in school that the earth revolves around the sun.

      A virtually B remarkably C ideally D preferably

      2. The story that follows__ two famous characters of the Rocky Mountain gold rush days.

      A concerns B states C proclaims D relates

      3. Tom__ better than to ask Dick for help.

      A shall know B shouldn’t know C has known D should have known

      4. The schoolmaster __ the girl’s bravery in his opening speech.

      A applauded B enhanced C elevated D clapped

      5. The head of the Museum was __ and let us actually examine the ancient manuscripts.

      A promising B agreeing C pleasing D obliging

      答案:

      1-5 AADAD

      1.选A virtually 实际上,几乎 Virtually the queen rules the Kingdom instead of the King.

      2.选A concern “关于”=be about. This story concerns a good girl and a wicked fairy.

      state陈述,叙述 The book states the case for women’s rights very clearly.

      proclaim宣布,宣告 The ringing bells proclaimed the news of the birth of the prince.

      3.选D know better than to do sth 明白事理而不至于……You ought to know better than to go swimming on such a cold day.

      4.选A applaud 称赞,赞许 The teacher applauded his brave spirit. enhance提高,增强, clap鼓掌。 Elevate举起,提高The fresh morning air elevated him.

      5.选D obliging 乐于助人的,有礼貌的 The United States and Australia were not so obliging. The two countries banned the import of British beef as early as 1988.

      1.We mustn't relax our vigilance___.

      A in the least B at least C at most D in the end

      2. During the reading lesson, the teacher asked the students to read a few __ from the novel.

      A pieces B essays C fragments D extracts

      3. But they aslo __ beyond the individual places and consider the earth as a whole.

      A pass B reach C go D set

      4. How human beings and their environment act __ each other.

      A upon B for C as D to

      5. The mere fact __ most people believe nuclear war would be madness does not mean that it will not occur.

      A what B which C that D why

      答案:

      1-5ADCAC

      1.选A ① in the least 丝毫,一点They don’t in least understand this.

      ②in the end 最后,终于

      In the end they reached their destination before dusk.

      ③at least至少

      ④at most至多

      2.选D ① extract 做节录,引文,选段

      He applied to the publisher for permission to reprint an extract.

      ②fragment 碎片,断片,(文艺作品等的)残存部分

      Liberty and civilization are only fragments of rights wrung from the strong hands of wealth and book learning.

      ③essay 散文,小品文,随笔,短文,评论

      3.选C go beyond超过,超出 These issues go beyond the range of language study. 而set和pass,reach不与beyond搭配。

      4.选A ①act upon作用于 This drug act upon (on) the nerves.

      ②act as 作为……而作出反应,充当

      His job was to act as a link between the government and the press.

      ③work at从事 She had been wondering what she should work at in order to gain her doctorate.

      5.选C 从句子结构来看,fact后接的是同位语从句。

  • 1.The policeman stopped him when he was driving home and __ him of speed.

      A charged B accused C blamed D warned

      2. The public opinion was that the time was not__ for the election of such a radical candidate as Mr. Jones.

      A reasonable B ripe C ready D practical

      3. The managing director took the __ for the accident, although it was not really his fault.

      A guilt B blame C charge D accusation

      4. Barry had an advantage over his mother__ he could speak French.

      A since that B in that C at that D so that

      5. Very few scientists__ completely new answers to the world’s problems.

      A come up with B come out C come round D come up to

      答案:

      1-5 BBBBA

      1选B accuse of 指控某人犯……罪 He was accused of corruption.

      charge with指控某人犯……罪 He was charged with negligence of duty.

      blame sb for 因……埋怨,责怪 Movies have been blamed for the crime wave.

      warn sb of 警告,告戒某人 He was warned of the danger.

      2.选B ripe引申为“时机成熟的,准备好的”I won’t tell her the news until the time is ripe for it.

      ready for做好准备的 Are you ready for the journey?

      3选B take the blame for sth对某事负责,内疚 We are ready to take the blame for that.

      4选B in that 由于,因为Human beings are superior to animals in that they can use language as a tool to communicate.

      5选A come up with提出,提供 He claimed to have been the first to come up with that idea.

      come out 出现,显露,出版,发表 When will his new book come out?

      come round/ around 顺便来访,改变主意 He will never come round to our way of thinking.

      come up to达到,符合Only in this way will you come up to the Party’s expectations.

      1. The political future of the president is now hanging by a __.

      A thread B cord C string D rope

      2. The question is still__ discussion.

      A in B by C for D under

      3. We managed to reach the top of the mountain, and half an hour later we began to __.

      A ascend B descend C decline D plunge

      4. To survive in the intense trade competition between countries, we must__ the qualities and varieties of products we make to the world-market demand.

      A improve B enhance C guarantee D gear

      5. There has been a __ lack of communication between the union and the management.

      A regretful B regrettable C regretting D regretted

      答案:

      1-5ADBDB

      1.选A 四个选项都有“绳索”这个意思,但只有thread和hang by构成习语:hang by a thread千钧一发,危在旦夕

      2.选D be+ prep+n(表动作的名词)来表示“被动”而under discussion是习惯搭配

      3.选B descend 指人,物体从某一高度/斜面上“下来/降”On turning the corner, we saw that the road descended sharply.

      decline 强调权利,繁荣,成就,健康状况,体力,记忆,数量的“减少,衰落”His influence declined after he lost the election.

      ascend渐渐上升,descend的反义词。We watched the balloon ascend higher and higher.

      plunge使突然前倾或下降 The sudden application of the brakes plunged him forward.

      enhance 增加,提高The moonlight enhanced the beauty of the scene.

      4.选D gear to使……适合,配合We must gear the amount of products we make to the increase in public demand. 现在来分析题目.题中的To……,是目的状语.而we 是主语, gear.to是谓语,而the qualitiesand varieties of products 是宾语,而we make 是来修饰这个宾语的,the world-market demand是宾补.句子的大致意思就是说我们必须根据市场的需求制造商品,才能在市场上立足.

      5 选B regrettable 可惜的 regretful后悔的,抱歉的

  • 1.She managed to save__ she could out of her wages to help her brother.

      A how little money B so little money C such little money D what little money

      2. The statue would be perfect but for a few small__ in its base.

      A mistakes B weakness C flaws D errors

      3. The morning news says a school bus__ with a train at the junction and a group of policmen were sent there immediately.

      A bumped B collided C crashed D struck

      4. The screaming of a woman____ our attention back_____ the TV program.

      A paid...at B got...on C called...to D drew...over

      5. This typerwriter is____ your service.

      A at B in C on D under

      答案:

      1.选D. what little+n表"所仅有的"

      2.选C flaw"缺陷,瑕疵,裂痕" There is only a flaw in his argument.

      mistake和error强调的是"错误",weakness"弱点"

      3.选B collide 碰撞,撞 The two cars collided, but luckily no one was seriously hurt.

      strike打,袭击,攻击 He struck the boy a violent blow.

      bump碰,冲撞,偶遇 I bumped into an old friend of mine on the road.

      crash碰撞,坠落 The car crashed into a tree.

      4.选C call(draw) one’s attention to 将某人的注意力吸引到……

      pay attention to 注意,重视 Please pay attention to your spellings.

      5.选A at one’s service 听候某人吩咐,听凭某人使用.(其他没有如此搭配)

      1. We are writing to the manager_ _the repairs recently carried out at the above address.

      A with the exception B with the purpose of C with reference to D with a view to

      2.Then the speaker__ the various factors leading to the present economic crisis.

      A went after B went into C went for D went on

      3.Theory is based on practice and __ serves and guides practice.

      A in turn B by turns C in return D taking turns

      4. We hadn’t realized that there would be a power cut so we were astonished when the whole house was__ into darkness.

      A dropped B dived C drowned D plunged

      5. The school committee naturally hope that their choice of play will be __ with the school and parents.

      A content B pleased C favorable D popular

      答案:

      1-5CBADD

      1.选C with reference to 关于,根据

      With a view to 以……为目标,指望于

      2.选B go into讨论,议论,详述They went into it for several hours, without much satisfaction on either side.

      go for袭击,抨击 His opponent went for him when his back was turned.

      go on进行,发生 If you never read newspaper, you’ll never know what’s going on in the world.

      3. 选A in turn 依次,反过来They speak in turn.

      in return 作为回报I helped her repair her bike, and she treated me to a cup of coffee in return.

      by turns 轮流 They laughed and cried by turns.

      take turns (at ) doing sth 轮流做某事

      The three brothers took turns (at) looking after their mother.

      4. 选D plunge into陷于某种状态

      The country was plunged into a war.

      5.选D be popular with受到……的喜爱

      be content with对某事感到满足We are not content with our present achievement.

      be pleased with 对……感到满意,高兴I am very pleased with he has done.

      Favorable 顺利的,有利的 The weather is favorable to us for a start.

  • 1.First published in 1927, the charts remain an _______ source for researchers.

      A intelligent B indispensable C inevitable D identical

      2. Please___ dictionaries when you are not sure of____ word spelling or meaning.

      A search B seek C inquire D consult

      3. It ____ you to at least 50% off the regular price of either frames or lenses when you buy both.

      A credits B entitles C presents D tips

      4. The __ at the military academy is so rigid that students can hardly bear it.

      A confinement B convention C discipline D principle

      5. Doctors warned agaisnt chewing tobacco as a _____ for smoking.

      A succession B substitute C revival D relief

      答案

      1-5BDBCB

      1.选B indispensable to do sth, indispensable for sth/ doing sth 不可缺少的,必需的

      inevitable 不可避免的,必然发生的

      identical同一的,identical to/with sb/sth与……完全相同的

      2.选D consult with sb 与某人商量,consult查阅

      3. 选B entitle sb to sth(用于被动语态) 给某人获得某事物或权利

      4. 选C discipline 训练方式,处罚

      confinement限制,监禁

      convention大会

      5.选B substitute 代替, 替用品

      revival恢复,苏醒

      1. It was the first time that such a ___ had to be taken at a British nuclear power station.

      A presentation B preparation C prediction D precaution

      2.The test results are beyond__; they have been repeated in labs all over the world.

      A conflict B dispute C bargain D negotiation

      3. The group of technicians are engaged in a study which __ all aspects of urban planning.

      A embraces B performs C inserts D grips

      4. ___ that he wan’t happy with the arrangements. I tried to book a different hotel.

      A Puzzling B Penetrating C Perceiving D Persevering

      5.His business, was very successful, but it was at the __ of his family life.

      A exhaustion B consumption C credit D expense

      答案:

      1-5 DBACD

      1.选D precaution 预防措施或方法

      I took the precaution of looking everything in the safe.

      presentation 赠送,演出

      2.选B dispute 争论,辩论,质疑

      bargain 谈判

      3.选A embrace 拥抱,包括

      grip 紧抓,吸引(某人的)注意力,常用于被动语态

      4.选C penetrating 思想敏锐的,有洞察力的,(声音)响亮的

      preceive观察,注意到

      perserving 坚持的,不屈不挠的

      5.选D at the expense of 以……为代价

    1. Attandances at basketball matches have____ since the coming of television.

        A dropped in B dropped down C dropped off D dropped out

        2. The meeting_____ at midnight and we all went home.

        A broke through B stopped off C stopped up D broke up

        3. How long did it take you to realize he was dishonest? I ___ from the start.

        A looked him through B saw through him

        C look forward to him D saw him through

        4.In the coming term she will ____ the advanced class.

        A take advantage of B take an account of

        C take charge of D take care of

        5. The clouds have_______ the sun.

        A blocked in B blocked off C blocked out D blocked up

        答案:

        1-5 CDBCC

        1.drop off减少, drop down卧倒 ,drop out 排出,掉出

        2.break up结束,break through突破,stop up=stay up, stop off中途下车

        3. see through sb 看穿某人, see sb through帮助某人度过难关

        4.take charge of掌管,负责, take an account of 把……列表,take advantage of sb欺骗某人

        5. block out封闭,block in填塞, 堵塞, block off阻断,堵塞

        1.The boy was ______ the charge of stealing.

        A. cleared of B. clear away C cleaned of D cleaned out

        2. We are considering ___ the production process.

        A. recognize B. recognized C recognizing D to recognize

        3. Rather than ___ me, he simply got up early to wash the clothes himself.

        A. disturb Bdisturbing C to disturb D disturbed

        4. You’ll have to be strict with your students. They quickly get_________.

        A. on hand B out of hand C off hand D by hand

        5. He inquired______ her husband’s health in her letter.

        A. after B into C for D about

        答案

        1-5:ACABA

        1. 选A.clear of证实(某人在某方面)无罪,常用于被动语态.

        clear away消除(某事物)或(云)消失

        clean of洗去污垢

        clean out清扫,打扫干净

        2.选C. consider作"考虑"后面的动词常为动名词形式.

        3.选A. rather than用于平行结构中与两个形容词,两个状语词组,两个名词或代词,两个不定式或ing形式连用.在此句中,它连接两个不定式.

        4.选B out of hand无法控制

        on hand手头上现有

        off hand立刻

        by hand 手工做的

        5. 选A inquire after 问起(某人的)健康

        inquire about 询问

        inquire into 调查,查问

        inquire for 询问(商品),地点
  • 在英语语法中,倒装结构通常是不太容易完全理清的一部分,在准备四级考试的时候也应当适当地准备一下。在英语表达中,当句子的正常语序表述出来是错误的内容时,我们就需要进行主谓语的位置变换,也就是通常说的倒装,在写作文中,为了凸显考生的英语水平比较好,有些考生也会选择用部分倒装,为了方便大家积累语法知识,老师为大家详细讲解了有关倒装句的内容,希望考生能够认真看一看,用这些倒装句的知识点写出自己的优秀作文。

    一、什么是英语倒装句

    在现实的语言实践中,由于语法结构的要求,或是由于修辞的需要,往往要改变句子的自然语序,把一些本应置于主语之后的句子成分提到主语之前。我们称这种语序的变化为“倒装语序”这样的倒装语序可能使句子的内在含义产生细微的、甚至明显的改变。只有注意观察引起倒装的原因,才能更准确地理解句子的含义。为了使句子的某成分突出,我们还会使用强调,而倒装语序大多都用于强调。

    英语句子的倒装一是由于语法结构的需要而进行的倒装,二是由于修辞的需要而进行的倒装。前一种情况,倒装是必须的,否则就会出现语法错误;后一种情况,倒装是选择性的,倒装与否只会产生表达效果上的差异。而倒装语序中又有完全倒装和部分倒装,完全倒装相对简单一点。

    二、完全倒装

    完全倒装是指将句子中的谓语全部置于主语之前,通常只用于一般现在时和一般过去时。句型模式是:谓语+主语+……

    1. There be/ appear/ come/ remain+主语(+地点或时间状语)

    例如:There appeared to be a woman in red.那里有个穿红衣服的女人。

    1. 副词+谓语动词+名词主语+……

    出于修辞需要,表示方向的副词:out, down, in, up, away, on。

    例如:Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him.

    出于习惯用法:here, there, now, thus, hence, then。例如:Here comes the taxi.

    1. 过去分词或现在分词+be的各种形式+主语+……

    例如:Scattered on the floor were several books and magazines.

    三、部分倒装

    部分倒装指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态动词倒装至主语之前,而谓语动词无变化。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do, does或did,并将其置于主语之前。

    1. 下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,若置句首,句子的主谓要部分倒装:never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in no way, no longer, no less, no more, no sooner than, under no circumstances, in vain, still less。

    例如:Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on. Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.

    1. 以only修饰状语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装

    例如:Only when you have obtained sufficient data can you come to a sound conclusion.

    1. 以下列副词或短语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装:often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point,many a time。

    例如:So involved with their computers do the children become that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.

    四、特殊从句的倒装

    1. 让步从句的倒装

    (1) as引导让步状语从句,必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。例如:Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job.

    (2) 出现在句型be+主语+其他中。例如:Our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic. The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly. Come what may, I’ll be on your side.

    1. 比较从句的倒装

    as, than引导的比较从句中,如果主语是名词短语且较长,经常采用倒装结构(不倒装也可以)。注意:这种结构主语一般为名词,如果是代词则不倒装。

    例如:Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce. Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.

    在以上倒装结构的语法知识点中,考查较多的还是部分倒装,考生也应该重点关注部分倒装的情形,熟练掌握这些知识后,在写作中考生一定可以轻松应对了,预祝各位考生都能取得满意的成绩!

     

  • 由于汉语与英语的巨大差别,时态在英语学习中至关重要。英语中将事情发生的时间分为现在、过去、将来和过去将来四种形式,发生的方式可分为一般、过去、进行和完成进行四种形式。将时间形式和动作方式结合起来,就构成了一般、完成、进行、完成进行几种时态。下面我们为大家仔细总结了英语中常用的几种时态,希望对大家的考试有所帮助。

    现在:

    现在一般时do、现在完成时have done、现在进行时is doing、现在完成进行时have been doing

    过去:

    过去一般时did、过去完成时had done、过去进行时was doing、过去完成进行时had been doing

    将来:

    将来一般时will do、将来完成时will have done、将来进行时will be doing、将来完成进行时will have been doing、

    过去将来:

    过去将来一般时would do、过去将来完成时would have done、过去将来进行时would be doing、过去将来完成进行时would have been doing

    英语的时态是靠动词的变化和时间状语来表达的。英语中的时态共有十六种,但是常考的或较常用的只有9种。

    要掌握英语的时态和语态,必须掌握好英语中的助动词(do, be, have)和时间状语这两个核心问题。

    1、一般现在时

    主要用来表示人、事物的现在状况和特点;表示经常或习惯性的动作,句子中常有often, always, from time to time 等时间状语;表示客观规律和永恒真理等。

    基本形式(以do为例):第三人称单数:does(主语为非第三人称单数);

    肯定句:主语+动词原形+其他;

    He works for us.

    否定句:主语+don't/doesn't+动词原形+其他;

    He doesn't work for us.

    一般疑问句:Do/Does+主语+动词原形+其他。

    特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句语

    Does he work for us?

    Yes, he does

    He usually goes to work at 7 o‟clock every morning. 他每天7点上班。

    2、现在进行时

    表说话时或目前一段时间内正在进行的活动:或表感情色彩,加强语气。与频率副词,如always,constantly,continually,again等连用表示说话人的某种感情色彩(赞叹、厌烦、埋怨等)。

    主语+be+v.ing〔现在分词〕形式(其中v表示动词) 表示现在正在进行的动作或最近在做的事

    We are having English class. 我们正在上英语课。

    3、现在完成时

    表示动作发生在过去,完成在过去,但强调与现在情况仍有联系,其结果或影响仍存在。基本结构:主语+have/has+过去分词(done)

    They have lived in Beijing for five years. 他们在北京已经住了5年了。

    4、一般过去时

    表在过去某个特定时间发生且完成的动作,或过去习惯性动作,不强调对现在的影响,只说明过去。常跟明确的过去时间连用,如:yesterday; last week; in 1945, at that time; once;
    during the war; before; a few days ago

    be动词+行为动词的过去式,否定句式:在行为动词前加didn„t,同时还原行为动词,或was/were+not;was或were放于句首;用助动词do的过去式did提问,同时还原行为动词。

    He used to smoke a lot. 他过去抽烟比较厉害。

    5、过去进行时

    表示过去某个时间点或某段时间内正在发生的动作。主语+was/were+doing+其它

    Beijing was hosting the 29th Olympic Games in August 2008. 在2008年8月,北京正在举办29届奥运会。

    6、过去完成时

    表示过去某个时间之前已经完成的动作,即过去完成时的动作发生在“过去的过去”,句中有明显的参照动作或时间状语,这种时态从来不孤立使用( before, after, by, up till ),基本结构:主语+had+过去分词(done)

    They finished earlier than we had expected. 他们提前完成了(工作)。

    7、一般将来时

    表在将来某个时间会发生的动作或情况。常和tomorrow, next year等表示将来的时间状语连用。
    am/are/is+going to+do 或will/shall+am/is/are/about to + do 、am/is/are to + do; 一般将来时的表达方法be going to +动词原形、be +不定式,be to+动词原形,be about to+动词原形、be able to +不定、 be about to+动词原形、will + 动词原形;

    I am leaving for Beijing tomorrow. 我明天就要离开北京。

    8、将来进行时

    表将来某个时间正在发生的动作,或按计划一定会发生的事情。主语+will + be +现在分词

    I‟ll be doing my homework this time tomorrow. 明天这会我正在写作业。

    9、将来完成时

    表在将来某时刻之前业已完成的事情,时间状语非常明显。常用的时间状语一般用by+将来的时间。如:by the end of this year, by 8 o‟clock this evening, by March next year以及由by the time…, before或when等引导的副词从句。(shall)will+have+动词过去分词、before+将来时间或by+将来时间。

    By the end of next month, he will have traveled 1000 miles on foot. 到下个月底,他步行将达到1000英里。

    这些时态的基本知识可谓是大家学习英语的重要基础,也是考试中作文和翻译最容易出现纰漏的地方,要掌握这些知识最好的方法就是多读多写多练习,预祝大家考试顺利过关!

     

  • 搭配一 among oneself

      该搭配中的反身代词通常为ourselves, themselves,且通常与动词agree, argue, quarrel, decide, divide, talk 等搭配,表示“彼此”“互相”“……之间”之类的意思。如:

      They were busy arguing among themselves. 他们忙着互相争论。

      We were always quarrelling among ourselves. 我们之间老是互相争吵。

      They talked among themselves while they waited. 他们一边等着一边互相谈话。

      Volunteers divided the different jobs among themselves. 志愿者们分担各种不同的工作。

      The trainees decide among themselves what programs to take. 受训者自行选择所学课程。

      The trouble was they couldn’t agree among themselves. 麻烦的是他们自己不能取得一致的意见。

      有时也与discussion, dispute等名词搭配。如:

      They had a heated discussion among themselves. 他们之间进行了热烈的讨论。

      They tried to settle disputes among themselves. 他们试图解决彼此之间的纠纷。

     

    搭配二 between ourselves

      该搭配为英语中的固定短语,意思是“勿与外人道私下说的话”“咱们私下说说(不足为外人道)”等,在具体语境中通常可以有比较灵活的翻译。如:

      All this is between ourselves. 这些我们只是私下说说。

      Between ourselves, I think she’s a bit of a fool. 你可别对别人说啊,我觉得她有点儿傻。

      Between ourselves, I don’t think he will live much longer. 咱们私下说说,他活不久了。

      Between ourselves. I think Mr. Holmes had not quite got over his illness yet. 我们私下说说,我认为福尔摩斯先生病还没完全好。

      有时也说成between you and me,意思一样。如:

      Between you and me, I think he’s rather stupid. 这是我们私下里说的话,我认为他很笨。

     

     搭配三 by oneself

      该短语有以下三个意思:

      一是表示“单独地”“独自地”,与alone同义。如:

      I often like to spend time by myself. 我平常喜欢独自消磨时间。

      The dog was in the house by itself for several days. 狗在房子里单独呆了几天。

      She is old enough to travel by herself. 她已经到了可以自己出门旅行的年龄了。

      表示此义时有时还可用作表语。如:

      My mother is by herself, so I must go home now. 我妈一个人在家,因此我得回家了。

      二是表示“靠自己”“无他人帮助”,与without help同义。如:

      I managed to do it by myself. 我是自己做成这件事的。

      John managed to repair his car by himself. 约翰设法独力修理自己的汽车。

      There are many things one must do by oneself without depending on others. 有许多事情你必须自己去做,不能依靠别人。

      三是表示“自动地”,主要用于 by itself,意思相当于automatically。如:

      This is a machine that works by itself. 这是一台自动工作的机器。

      The door opens by itself as you approach it. 当你靠近时候门就会自动打开。

      The machine will start by itself in a few seconds. 机器在几秒钟后会自动开启。

     

    搭配四 for oneself

      该搭配主要有两个方面的意思:

      一是表示“自己”“亲自”。如:

      You can judge for yourself. 你可以自己做出判断。

      He has a fight to decide for himself. 他有权自己做决定。

      He demanded the right to decide for himself. 他要求得到自己做决定的权力。

      二是表示“为自己”“替自己”。如:

      He made no complaint for himself. 他没为自己诉苦。

      He acted without thought for himself. 他那样做的时候并没考虑到自己。

      She’s no shrinking violet—always ready to speak up for herself. 她可不胆小——任何场合都能为自己说话。

     

     搭配五 in itself

      该搭配的意思是“本质上”“实质上”“本身”。如:

      He is not bad in himself. 他本质不坏。

      The idea is not bad in itself. 这主意本身不错。

      Threading a needle is an art in itself. 穿针引线本身就是一种技巧。

      You’ve managed to complete the course—that in itself is an achievement. 你设法修完了课程——这本身就是成绩。

     

     搭配六 to oneself

      该搭配的基本意思是“独自地”“单独地”“给自己用”,通常与某些动词配合使用,其含义也往往受所搭配动词意思的影响。如:

      1. cry to oneself 哭着对自己说

      Oh Ned, Nancy cried to herself, why did you have to leave me? 哦,内德,南希还哭着对自己说,你为什么一定得离开我呢?

      2. have something to oneself 独自享用某物

      I have the whole day to myself. 今天整天都是属于我自己的。

      With my parents away I’ve got the house to myself. 由于我父母不在,我可以独自使用这所房子。

      3. keep (oneself) to oneself 不与人交往

      Nobody knows much about him; he keeps himself very much to himself. 谁都不太了解他,因为他很少与人来往。

      4. say to oneself 心里想

      So I said to myself, “It’s time I left.” 所以我想:“我该走了。”

      I woke up early and said to myself, “Shall I get up?” 我很早就醒来了,心里想:“要不要起床呢?”

      注意:say to oneself与speak to oneself大致同义,主要指“说给自己听”“在心里想着”,其“自言自语”的成分比较少。若要表示“自言自语”(强调出声),可用talk to oneself。如:

      He was probably talking to himself, which he often did now. 他也许在自言自语,他现在常常如此。

      When she was old, she would sit in the corner talking to herself for hours. 在她年老时,她老坐在角落里自言自语,一说就是几个小时。

     

  • 主语和谓语是句子的核心,它们之间有两种语序:一是主语在谓语之前称为自然语序(Natural Order);二是主语在谓语之后则称为倒装语序(Inverted Order)。而倒装语序中又有全部倒装(Full Inversion)和部分倒装(Partial Inversion)两种情况。
      首先,在全部倒装的句子中,要把整个谓语放在主语的前面去而构成倒装语序。
      例如:
      There are large numbers of students in the lecture hall.
      (在There be…的句式中,There只是个引导词而不是主语,真正的主语是后面作表语的名词或者名词短语。因此,There be…的句式都是全部倒装的句子。)演讲厅里有大量的学生。
      When he ran to the door, there stood a mid-aged man with a lantern in his hand .
      (此句是为了"描述情节的需要",把倒装当着修辞的手段而写成了全部倒装句。句子的主语是a mid-aged man,谓语是stood 。)当他向房门跑去时,那儿正立着一位手里拿着一盏灯笼的中年男人。
      另外,在部分倒装的句子中,只把谓语的一部分(如情态动词、助动词、或是系动词be)放到主语的前面去,构成倒装语序。例如:
      Are you going to take part in the football match against Accounting Department on Friday afternoon? (句子的谓语是are going to take part,are是句子的谓语的一部分;句子的主语是you 。所以,此句是部分倒装的句子。疑问句都是部分倒装句。)你打算去参加星期五与会计系进行的足球赛吗?
      Hardly could he finish his test paper when the school bell rang .(由于语法要求的原因,本句写成了部分倒装的句子。它的自然语序应该是:When the bell rang, he could hardly finish his test paper.)他还未做完试卷,下课铃就响了。
      了解了倒装语序的构成情况后,我们再来看看倒装语序在各种不同类句子中的使用情况:
      A. 在疑问句中
      各种疑问句一般地说都是倒装语序。例如:
      Will they come to see us this weekend ? 这个周末他们将来看我们吗?
      Are you talking about the film you saw last Monday ?
      你们是在谈论你们上周一看的那部电影吗?
      Can you speak another foreign language except English?
      除开英语,你还能说另一种外语吗?
      Where did you buy the dictionary, in the book store nearby or in Xinhua bookstore?
      你在哪儿买的这本词典,是在附近的书店还是在新华书店?
      She is not a student, isn't she ? 她不是个学生,对吗?
      B. 在感叹句中
      某些感叹句也用倒装语序。例如:
      Isn't it a beautiful garden ! 多么美丽的花园啊!
      What a beautiful garden it is ! 多么美丽的花园啊!(在这种句式中,主语在谓语之前,属于自然语序。对于主语和谓语而言,语序没有倒装。)
      Have you ever seen such a naughty kid like him !
      你见过那个孩子像他这么调皮!
      C. 在陈述句中
      陈述句在一般情况下用自然语序;但由于英语语法的某些原因,陈述句也要使用倒装语序。这些原因大致可以归纳如下:
      1) 为了避免句子部分内容不必要的重复,常用"so + be动词(助动词、情态动词)+主语"或"neither / nor + be动词(助动词、情态动词)+主语"的倒装句式。其中第一个句式表示"与前面所述的肯定情况相同", 第二个句式表示"与前面所述的否定情况相同"。例如:
      His brother is a college student; so is mine.
      他弟弟是大学生,我弟弟也是。
      His brother is not a college student; nor is min .
      他弟弟不是大学生,我弟弟也不是。
      He used to have his further study abroad; so did I.
      他曾去国外深造过,我也去过。
      He didn't use to have his further study abroad; neither did I.
      他没去国外深造过,我也没有。
      One of my friends can speak three foreign languages; so can his wife.
      我的一个朋友会说三门外国语,他的妻子也会。
      One of my friends cannot speak three foreign languages; neither can his wife .我的一个朋友不会说三门外国语,他的妻子也不会。
      They are now preparing for their final examinations; so are we .
      他们正在为期末考试作准备,我们也一样。
      They are not now preparing for their final examinations; nor are we .
      他们没在为期末考试作准备,我们也没有。
      2)具有否定意义的词或短语置于句首时(除否定词修饰主语外),句子一般要写成部分倒装句。这类词或短语常见的有:not, never, seldom, hardly, rarely, scarcely, by no means, under no circumstances, in no way, at no time, no sooner … (than), hardly … (when), not only … (but also), not until… ,等。例如:
      Hardly had she sat down when she heard someone knocking at the door .
      她还没来得及坐下来,就听见有人敲门。
      Not until twelve o'clock did he go to bed last night .
      他昨晚直到十二点钟才睡觉。
      Never have my sisters been to Hong Kong before .
      我的妹妹们以前从未去过香港。
      No sooner had I returned home from New Zealand than I bought a house and went to live there.我从新西兰一回国,就买了一栋房子并在那儿住下了。
      So far as I know, seldom does Mary come back to see her mother.
      就我所知,玛利几乎很难回来看她妈妈。
      Scarcely a drop of rain fell here last fall . (否定词修饰主语时,句子不用倒装。) 去年秋天,这儿几乎没下一滴雨。
      3)当so, often, only等表示程度、频率的副词放在句首时,句子一般要倒装。例如:
      Only in this way can you come up with a solution to the problem.
      只有这样,你才有可能想出解决这个问题的办法。
      So serious was the situation that everybody faced a test.
      形势如此地严峻,每个人都面临着一场考验。
      So hard did he overwork that he fell ill at last. 他太操劳过度以致最后病倒了。
      4)当there, here, then, now等副词在句首,且谓语是come, go, be等动词时,句子一般要全部倒装。其意义在于引起他人的注意。如果这类句子的主语是代词,则不用写成倒装句。例如:
      Now, here goes the story.这个故事是这样的。
      Look, there comes the taxi.瞧,出租车过来了。
      Then came another question.然后又一个问题提出来了。
      Then followed the four-year War of Liberation.接下来是四年的解放战争。
      5) 当out, in, away, up, bang等表示方位或拟声词放在句首时,句子一般要全部倒装。这类子比自然语序的句子更为生动、形象。但如果这类句子的主语是代词,则不用写成倒装句。例如:
      Bang goes my ace.我砰地一下打出了"爱司"。
      Away flew the bird.那鸟飞走了。
      Suddenly, in came a man with a mask on his face.
      突然进来一个蒙着面具的人。
      6) 其他情况还有:省略了if的虚拟条件句、某些表示祝愿的句子、以及某些让步状语从句,等等也要用倒装句式。例如:(省略了if的虚拟条件句)
      Had they not helped us, we could not have done it so successfully.
      如果没有他们的帮助,我们不可能把那件事办的如此成功。
      Should he come, say "Nobody in" to him.
      万一他来了,对他说:"公司没人。"(某些表示祝愿的句子)
      May our friendship last forever.愿我们的友谊常存!
      May your company become prosperous.祝贵公司生意兴隆!(某些让步状语从句)
      Try as I might, I couldn't lift the stone.无论我使多大的劲,我也无法搬起那块石头。
      They said they would follow the Party's lead come what might.
      他们说无论发生什么情况,他们都会跟党走的。
      7) 由于修辞或是平衡句子的原因也可以用倒装句;也可以不用。这不是一条必须的规定。
      Next to this one is another grand hotel which is beautifully decorated .
      这家饭店隔壁还有一家装修华丽的大饭店。
      On either side of the great avenue stood many block buildings.
      这条大街的两侧都耸立着许多综合楼。(这类句子也可以不用倒装句。)
      "I'm leaving for Beijing tomorrow," said Tom to his mother (OR: Tom said to his mother) .汤姆对他妈妈说:"我明天动身去北京。"
      Many block buildings stood on either side of the great avenue.
      许多综合楼耸立在这条大街的两侧。
      Another grand hotel, which is beautifully decorated, is next to this one .
      这家饭店隔壁还有一家大饭店,那家饭店装修十分华丽。

     

  • though, although
      注意: 当有though, although时,后面的从句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用
      Although it's raining, they are still working in the field.
      虽然在下雨,但他们仍在地里干活。
      He is very old, but he still works very hard.
      虽然他很老,但仍然努力地工作。
      Though the sore be healed, yet a scar may remain.
      伤口虽愈合,但伤疤留下了。 (谚语)
      典型例题
      1) ___she is young, she knows quite a lot.
      A. When B. However  C. Although  D. Unless
      答案:C。意为虽然她很年轻,却知道许多。
      2) as, though 引导的倒装句
      as / though引导的让步从句必须表语或状语提前(形容词、副词、分词、实义动词提前)。
      Child as /though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do.
      = Though he was a small child, he knew what was the right thing to do.
      注意: a. 句首名词不能带任何冠词。
      b. 句首是实义动词,其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放在主语之前。
      Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.
      = Though he tries hard, he never seems…
      虽然他尽了努力,但他的工作总做的不尽人意。
      3) ever if, even though. 即使
      We'll make a trip even though the weather is bad.
      4) whether…or-  不管……都
      Whether you believe it or not, it is true.
      5) "no matter +疑问词" 或"疑问词+后缀ever"
      No matter what happened, he would not mind.
      Whatever happened, he would not mind.
      替换:no matter what = whatever
      no matter who = whoever
      no matter when = whenever
      no matter where = wherever
      no matter which = whichever
      no matter how = however
      注意:no matter 不能引导主语从句和宾语从句。
      (错)No matter what you say is of no use now.
      (对)Whatever you say is of no use now.
      你现在说什么也没用了。(Whatever you say是主语从句)
      (错)Prisoners have to eat no matter what they're given,
      (对)Prisoners have to eat whatever they're given. 囚犯们只能给什么吃什么。

  • 1) 一般否定句
      I don't know this. No news is good news.
      There is no person /not a person/not any person in the house.
      2)特指否定
      He went to his office, not to see him.
      I am sorry for not coming on time.
      I don't think/believe/suppose/feel/imagine you are right.
      3)部分否定
      I don't know all of them.
      I can't see everybody/everything.
      All the answers are not right.(并非所有答案都对。)
      All is not gold that glitters. (闪光的不一定都是金子。)
      Both of them are not right.(并非两人都对。)
      4)全体否定
      None of my friends smoke.
      I can see nothing/nobody.
      Nothing can be so simple as this.
      Neither of them is right.
      5) 延续否定
      You didn't see him, neither/nor did I.
      You don't know, I don't know either.
      He doesn't know English, let alone/to say nothing of/not to speak of French.
      6) 半否定句
      We seldom/hardly/scarcely/barely hear such fine singing.
      I know little English.
      I saw few people.
      7) 双重否定
      You can't make something out of nothing.
      What's done cannot be undone.
      There is no sweet without sweat.
      No gain without pains.
      I can't help /keep/ laughing whenever I hear it.
      No man is so old but (that) he can learn.
      8)排除否定
      Everyone is ready except you.
      He did nothing but play.
      But for your help, I couldn't do it.
      9)加强否定
      I won't do it at all.
      I can't see it any more.
      He is no longer a boy

  • 感叹词是用来表示说话时表达的喜怒哀乐等情感的词。它不构成后面句子的一个语法成分,却在意义上与它有关连,后面的句子一般说明这种情绪的性质、原因。感叹词是英语口语中最富于表现力的词语之一,用途甚广。学会它,对于提高英语的交际能力,表达复杂的思想起着举足轻重的作用。英语中的感叹词很多,但目前的语法著作中却很少对它进行归纳总结,致使许多人对含有感叹词的句子理解不透。现将部分感叹词的用法进行小结:
      一、Oh 表示惊讶、指责、痛苦、称赞、懊恼等,可译为“哦”、“哎呀”、“噢”“啊”、“呀”等。
      1.“Oh, who was that?” Mr. Black asked.“哦,是谁?”布莱克先生问。
      2.“Oh, how blind you are!” he cried.“哎呀,你们真瞎!”他大声道。
      3.“Oh, oh!” he cried.“My stomach! My head! oh! oh!”“哎呀,哎哟!”他大声道,“我的肚子!我的头!哎哟!哎哟!”
      4.Oh, learned judge! Oh, wise young man.噢,博学的法官!噢,聪明的年轻人!
      二、Ah表示惊奇、高兴、讨厌、懊悔、藐视、威胁等,可译为“呀、啊”等。
      1.Ah, yes, Jeanne married a man with a lot of money.啊,对啦,让娜嫁给了一个很有钱的人。
      2.“Ah, what splendid clothes!” thought the Emperor.“啊!多华丽的衣服啊!”皇帝想。
      3.Ah,how pitiful!呀,多可惜!
      4. Ah, here is the thing I am after.哎呀,我找的东西在这儿呢。
      三、come表示鼓励、不耐烦、引起注意、安慰等,可译为“喂、好吧、说吧、得啦”等。
      1.Oh,come, Mathilde.Surely you can tell an old friend.嗨,说吧,玛蒂尔德,你对老朋友说说总是可以的吧。
      2.Come, we must hurry.喂,我们得赶紧啦!
      3.Come, come, get him his change.Tod,get him his change.好吧,好吧,托德,快把钱找给他,快把钱找给他。
      4. Come,come! What were you really doing behind the bicycle sheds?喂!喂!你还在车棚里磨蹭啥?
      四、dear表示后悔、难过、怜悯、同情、吃惊、盼望等,可译为“哎呀、天哪”等。
      1. Dear me! What awful weather!哎呀!多糟的天气!
      2.Oh, dear, dear! Where can Harry be?天哪,天哪,亨利会在哪儿?
      3.Dear, dear! Where have I put my keys?哎呀,我把钥匙放在哪啦?
      4.“Dear me,” he said to himself,“Am I foolish or unfit for my office?”“哎呀!”他心里嘀咕着,“我是愚蠢呢还是不称职?”
      五、well表示快慰、让步、期望、讥讽、解释、责备、犹豫等,可译为“好吧、不过、好啦、嗯”等。
      1. Well,your father has found him in the garage.好啦,你父亲在车库里找到他了。
      2.Are you sure? Well,perhaps you,are right.你能肯定吗?嗯,也许你说得对。
      3.Well,you must come to lunch tomorrow.不过,你明天一定要来吃午饭。
      4.I handed the note to him and said,“Oh,very well,I apologize.”我把那张票子递给了他,说道:“啊,好极了,我向你道歉。”
      5.Well,why don't you make a notice like theirs?那么,你为什么不做个像他们那样的广告牌呢?

      六、now表示警告、命令、请求、说明、安慰筹,可译为“喂、喏、好了”等,有时也可不必译出。
      1.Now,now, you two;Don't fight again.喂,喂,你们俩,别再打了。
      2.Now, now, my boy!It's all right!There's no need to cry!好了,好了,孩子,没事了,别哭了。
      3.Now,let's play basketball.喏,咱们打篮球吧!
      4.Now,lift me up,Doctor,lift me up.Where is he?把我扶起来吧,医生,把我扶起来。他在哪里?
      七、there表示得意、鼓励、同情、悲哀、不耐烦、失望、安慰、挑衅、引起注意等,可译为“哟、瞧、好啦、得啦”等。
      1.There!There! Never mind, you'll soon feel better.好啦,好啦,不要紧,你马上会好的。
      2.Thefe,there,you said too much.得啦,得啦,你说的太多了。
      3.There—I've filled it up again.瞧,我又把它灌满了。
      4.There—what's that?哟,那是什么!
      八、man表示兴奋、轻蔑、不耐烦、引起注意、可译为“啊、嗨”等。
      1.“Use you knife,man!” ordered the British officer nearby.“嗨,用刀子割!”旁边的英国军官命令道。
      2.Hurry up,man.嗨,快点。
      3.We have won the match,man!啊,我们胜利了。
      九、boy表示高兴、兴奋、惊奇等,可译为“嘿、哇、哼、怎么样”等。
      1. Boy,oh,boy!Our team's going to win!How fantastic?哇,怎么样!我们队要赢了!真是太好了!
      2.Boy!This soup is good,Mama!嘿,妈妈,这汤好得很。
      3.Oh,boy!I just had a wonderful dream!嘿,我刚才做了个好梦。
      十、此外还有:
      ha(惊奇、疑惑、鄙视)aha(得意、惊奇、嘲弄、满意)
      hey(喜悦、打招呼)hell(喜悦、惊奇、打招呼)
      sh(制止、引起注意)why(吃惊、抗议)
      nonsense(胡说) Good heavens(惊异、不高兴)
      1.Ha! Pround as these nobles are,he is afraid to see me.哈!这些贵族尽管傲慢,他却害怕见到我。
      2.The trousers are all right;now the waistcoat; aha,right again.裤子合身;再请穿上背心试试;啊哈,也很合适。
      3 Hey!I didn't expect to meet you here.嗨,我没想到会在这儿遇到你。
      4.Hello? Yes, this is Professor Hunter's house.喂,是的,这儿是亨特教授的家。
      5.They were about to go down. When Tum suddenly whispered.“Sh!Keep still. Don't move!”他们正想再下去,这时托姆突然低声道:“嘘,安静,别动!”
      6 Why, what's the harm?咳,这有什么害处呢?
      7.“Nonsense,” the king shouted.“My cook is the best cook in the world.”“胡说!”那国王喊道,“我的厨师是世界上最好的厨师。”
      8.“Good heavens! Listen to that silly child,” said the father.“天哪!听听那傻孩子在瞎说些什么!”孩子的父亲说

     

  • 感官动词 see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel + do  表示动作的完整性,真实性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性
      I saw him work in the garden yesterday.
      昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调"我看见了"这个事实)
      I saw him working in the garden yesterday.(强调"我见他正干活"这个动作)
      昨天我见他正在花园里干活。
      典型例题
      1)They knew her very well. They had seen her ___ up from childhood.
      A. grow  B. grew  C. was growing  D. to grow
      答案:A。因题意为,他们看着她长大,因此强调的是成长的过程,而非正在长的动作,因此用see sb do sth 的句型。
      2)The missing boy was last seen ___ near the river.
      A. playing  B. to be playing  C. play  D. to play
      答案A. 本题强调其动作,正在河边玩,应此用see sb. doing sth句型。

  • 两人对话,乙方对甲方的问话常可用简短回答作出 反应。例如: Do you like it? -- Yes,I do.这同样适用于陈述句的场合: You worry too much.-- No,I don't.在后一种情况下,乙方也能"So+do+主语"之类 的结构表示看法。
      例如甲方说"我喜欢苹果",乙方 如果想表示"我也喜欢苹果",英语可以说:
      A:I like apples.
      B:So do I.(= I like apples,too。)
      这里的so在意义上相当于in the same way,即同样、 也那样,作简短反应表示同样看法时常用之。
      本文 就诸如此类的四种结构略作介绍。
      1."So+do+主语"结构 在简短反应中表示"我也如此"或"另外一个人也 如此"时,也就是主语不同于上文的主语以及上 文并无可用于构成倒装的动词(即操作词时), 可用此结构。例如: A:I like playing football. B:So do I./So does my brother./So did my father. 如果上文有可用于构成倒装的动词时,则用相同 的动词或根据不同人称用同类的动词。 I must go -- So must I. John can speak French.--So can I. I've got a new car.--So has John. She is clever.-- So is he.
      2."Neither/Nor + do + 主语" 结构 如果上文表示否定意义而在简短反应中表示同样 看法时,可用此结构。例如,甲方说I can't swim, 乙方如果想表示"我也不会游泳",英语可以说 Neither can I. / Nor can I(=I can't either)。
      又例如: A:He doesn't speak French. B:Neither/Nor do I. Neither/Nor does my brother. Neither/Nor does my father. 关于以上两种结构,有两点说明:
      第一,能用动词缩略形式。例如: I'm going to London. ---So's John。(is) I've been to New York. ---So's John.(has) I'd have gone to Tokyo if I could.---So'd John.(would) John hasn't got a visa. ---Nor've do I.(have) Jim and Mary aren't acting in the college play. ---Neither's Peter.(is)
      第二,上述甲乙对话如用and连成一句可出自一人 之口。例如: John can speak French and so can't I. John can't speak French and neither/ nor can I. John speaks French and so do I. John doesn't speak French and neither/nor do I. 上述斜体部分相当于and I can, too / and I can't either / and I do too / and I don't either 的意思。
      3."So+主语+do"结构 在简短反应中,对别人所说的情况加以肯定以及 主语与上文主语相同时,可用此结构,注意,这 里不用倒装同序;so 的意义相当于indeed, certainly,即"不错"、"对了"。例如: A:John smokes a lot. B: So he does.(=He smokes a lot indeed.) 这类简短反应往往带有说话人的惊奇口吻。例如: A:Look,it's raining! B: So it is. 在这里,So it is的含义是 You are right! It is raining;and this surprises me.
      4."Nor+主语十do"结构
      如果乙方想对甲方所否定的情况加以肯定时,可用此 结构(注:在这类结构中,neither少见)例如: Look! It isn't raining any more!
      ---Nor it is!
      This cup hasn't got a handle!
      ---Nor it has!
      四种结构的介绍就到此为止。下面从L.A. Hill所著 An Intermediate Refresher course 一书摘引一则 对话供初学者观察上述四种结构在上下文中的使用 情况。
      Derothy: Look it's raining!
      Donald: So it is! I'm not going out this afternoon now.
      Dorothy:Nor am I. You and I haven't got anything to do this evening, you know.
      Donald: Nor we have! We can go to the cinema then.
      Derothy: So we can.
      Donald: There's a good film on at the "Metropole".
      Derothy: So there is! Shall we go?
      Denald: Yes, let's.
      Derothy: But it doesn't start until 6 o'clock.
      Denald: Nor it does! I thought there was an early performance too.
      Dorothy:So did I . Well, I don't want to sit about doing nothing until 6.
      Donald: Nor do I …Oh, look, it isn't raining any more.
      Dorothy: Nor it is! I'd like to go for a walk.
      Donald: So would I…OH, who's that coming up the road?
      Dorothy: It's the postman.
      Donald: So it is! He's very early. The evening newspaper hasn't even arrived yet.
      Dorothy: Nor it has! That's late today. I hope the postman has a letter for us.
      Donald: So do I - but I don't want any more bills!
      Dorothy: Nor do I!
      Donald: Here he is…there's a parcel for us!
      Dorothy: So there is! I wonder who sent it.
      Donald: So do I. I wasn't expecting a parcel.
      Dorothy: Nor was I. Oh, it's from Mother - they are woolen clothes for the baby!
      Donald: So they are! She must have knitted them herself!
      Dorothy: There's no letter in the parcel.
      Donald: Nor there is! I find that strange.
      Dorothy: So do I. She always writes to us on Sundays. Oh, well, perhaps we shall get a letter from her tomorrow.

  • 名称   总称(谓语用复数) 一个人   两个人
      中国人  the Chinese   a Chinese  two Chinese
      瑞士人  the Swiss    a Swiss   two Swiss
      澳大利亚人the Australians an Australian two Australians
      俄国人  the Russians  a Russian  two Russians
      意大利人 the Italians  an Italian  two Italians
      希腊人  the Greek    a Greek   two Greeks
      法国人  the French   a Frenchman two Frenchmen
      日本人  the Japanese  a Japanese  two Japanese
      美国人  the Americans an American two Americans
      印度人  the Indians  an Indian   two Indians
      加拿大人 the Canadians a Canadian  two Canadians
      德国人  the Germans  a Germans  two Germans
      英国人  the English  an Englishman two Englishmen
      瑞典人  the Swedish  a Swede   two Swedes

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